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Реферат: Билеты для сдачи кандидатского минимума по английскому языку аспирантам специальностей правовед, бухгалтер, экономист, философ

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes

The need for enforcement

As the Court of Justice said in 1963, in the landmark case of Van Gend en
Laos NederlandseAdministratiederBelastingen (case 26/62), the European
Community constitutes a new legal order in international law, for whose benefit the states have limited their sovereign rights ... and the subjects of which comprise not only the member states but also their nationals.
Whilst some may dispute the unique nature of this new legal order (see
Wyatt, D., 'New Legal Order or Old?' (1982) 7 EL Rev 147) there is no doubt that the law stemming from the three EC treaties comprising the European
Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty 1951, the Euratom Treaty 1957 and the European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty 1957, renamed the Economic
Community (EC) by the Treaty on European Union 1992, differs from traditional international law in a number of important respects. First, the
Treaties, particularly the EC Treaty, are much more extensive in their scope than most international agreements, embracing many areas of activity normally reserved to national law alone; secondly they created a strong framework of institutions, endowed with the power to make laws, binding on states and individuals, on all matters within their scope; and thirdly, and as a result of the first two factors, EC law is exceptional in the extent to which it penetrates domestic law, creating rights and obligations enforceable by and even against individuals before their national courts.
These characteristics, taken together, have resulted in an immense and ever- growing body of Community law, existing alongside and often conflicting with domestic law, and enforceable, directly or indirectly, within domestic legal systems.
Because of its 'special' nature the enforcement of EC law raises particular problems for English lawyers. It requires a new approach to interpretation; the application of new techniques and principles; the modification of national actions taken by the institutions of the
Community. They shall facilitate the achievement of the Community's tasks.
They shall abstain from, any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the objectives of this Treaty.

Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes
Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.

Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.


Sincerely,

phone (202)
565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes
Accordingly, judicial activity is essentially the last link in the chain of the crystallisation of the rule of law ... it is the bridge between the necessarily abstract legal rule and the necessarily individual nature of the particular case. Every case is individual and every rule abstract.

This doctrine obliterates any distinction between law and obligation or, more precisely, legal relationships. The latter constitute only the specific application of the former. This assimilation of legal material has a peculiar consequence for the presentation of international law:
The actual content of international law is even more meagre than may appear from its presentation in text-books, when we consider that most rules of international law are concerned with a definition of subjective rights established by particular or general treaty. Rights of this nature would hardly appear in a presentation of a system of municipal law which is composed of abstract rules of an objective nature.
There is thus an apparent tension at the heart of Lauterpacht's concept of law. On the one hand, law lies in the legal relationships established by the parties inter se, while yet equally on the other hand, law comprises precepts which exist independently of the parties' will.
Further, Lauterpacht sees law as an imperative system, that is as a series of commands directed at the subjects of the legal system to regulate their behaviour. Given his adhesion to pacta sunt servanda as the fundamental presupposition underpinning the system, once a state's agreement is given, whether tacitly or expressly, to a norm then the resulting rule binds the state independently of its will. Regardless of whether pacta sunt servanda is a customary norm or initial hypothesis, it constitutes a command, i.e. a rule existing independently of the will of the parties. It is of no consequence that in the international sphere the command does not issue from a political superior. Law may be a command without being the command of an organized political community ... law may be a command merely by virtue of its external nature.
Moreover, Lauterpacht's array appears to be conditioned by that of
Kelsen, for whom 'the legal duty is the central and only essential element of the legal system'. It must be conceded that, albeit in the context of a discussion of the Permanent Court' competence, Lauterpacht stated that
'like the bulk of the rules of private law, the rules of international law are primarily of a permissive character.

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes
To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI
Deputy Minister of National Economy

28 January 2000
Dear Ms Zicci

Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to
Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in
Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.

I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.

Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your dense business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.

Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.

Looking forward to meeting you, I remain

Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev
Deputy Minister

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes
At present, only Germany and Portugal have a coherent group law, while other states make do with a few isolated rules scattered in their national company laws. The draft will define when a group exists. The decisive factor in this will be the parent company's controlling influence in law or de facto. Based on the German model, the draft will also state that dominance agreements must be drawn up between the parent company and the subsidiary, whereby the parent company directly takes over the management of the subsidiary. The 'price' for this is to be a closely defined indemnification of the subsidiary's minority shareholders and creditors. It is regrettable that it has proved impossible so far to establish a uniform group law in the Union, because the uncertainty surrounding the state of law for a transnational group is considerable. Development in European group law is virtually at a standstill, and many would welcome the adoption of the Ninth Directive, perhaps in yet another, even simpler form. Until then, group law will continue to develop in an ad hoc manner.
It is, however, an interesting aspect of this development that in its case law, the European Court has undertaken a de facto further development of group law albeit only in certain areas. One of the core questions of group law that national and/or Community law provisions ought to decide is the extent to which the group has a right, or perhaps an obligation, to be considered as an entity. This means that the plurality of legal persons making up the group will be deemed to be one with regard to rights and obligations. In a number of situations, the core area of group law is the important factor when looking at whether the group should be treated as an entity or as a plurality. Subsequently, the choice arises between separate or joint treatment of the group's legal persons. In this area, the Court has demonstrated a flexibility and a will to develop which is scarcely evident in national legislators. I shall mention only a couple of examples from the Court's work.
Clearly the dominant principle within group law, as a branch of company law, is that the individual group company is deemed to be an independent entity with regard to both rights and obligations. Group companies are not liable for one another, no set-offs are allowed between one company's trade debtors and another company's debts, etc. This principle is no obstacle, of course, to the individual group companies accepting liabilities or financial guarantees for one another.

European Business Law Review. September/October, 1998

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes
To: Mr Joe Smith
Director General
Fair Trade Commission
USA

Re: New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and
Perspectives

20 August 1999

Dear Mr Smith

We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International
Conference
" New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and
Perspectives".

This high-level International Conference will take place in London, 8-9
November 1999. It will host participants from competition authorities representing foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles.

The working languages of the Conference are English and French.

We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.

For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)

William Brandt, Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes
Law and the Rule of Law
Lauterpacht located the International Court at the centre of the international legal order, arguing that the Court's original and primary purpose was to decide disputes between States and, by fostering the rule of law among them, to contribute to international peace. That purpose has not wholly materialized owing to the political conditions prevailing after the
Second World War and to the reluctance of Governments to confer upon the
Court the requisite jurisdiction. These conditions are not necessarily of a permanent character ... It is that purpose which, notwithstanding temporary setbacks, must remain the abiding purpose of the judicial organization of the community of nations under the rule of law.
Within this structure, legal officials, such as judges, play an indispensable role in securing the Rule of Law as when they apply the necessary abstract rule of law to the concrete case, they create the legal rule for the individual case before them.
The object of law to secure order must be defeated if a controversial rule of conduct may remain permanently a matter of dispute ... it is essential for the rule of law that there should exist agencies bearing evidence, and giving effect, to the imperative nature of the law. The law's external nature may express itself either in the fact that it is a precept created independently of the will of the subjects of the law, or that it is valid and continues to exist in respect of the subjects of the law independently of their will.
The importance of the judicial function permeates Lauterpacht's concept of law. This is expressed in his argument for obligatory jurisdiction that is itself a consequence of the emphasis which Lauterpacht gives to the gradual concretization of law. Apart from the search for a basic norm, this is the most prominent aspect of Lauterpacht's concept of law which is primarily associated with Kelsen. Norms are relatively indeterminate as they cannot specify all the conditions for their application.
The actual operation of the law in society is a process of gradual crystallization of the abstract legal rule, beginning with the constitution of the State, as the most fundamental and abstract body of rules, and ending with the concrete shaping of the individual legal relation by a judgement of a court, or by an adjudication or decision of an administrative authority, or by an agreement of the interested parlies.

lain J. M. Scobbie. The Theorist as Judge. European Journal of
International Law. Vol. 8 No 2, 1997.

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

INTERNATIONAL & PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPT.
Athens, 29 December 1999

Mr. Alexey PROKOFIEV
Vice Minister

Subject: EOMMEX's data base

Dear Sir,

The Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and
Handicraft (EOMMEX) is the Public Body supporting the SME's in Greece supervised by the Ministry of Development.

EOMMEX, is trying to enrich it's data base with all the existing nformation, in order to help the Greek SME's develop transnational co- operations.

Therefore, we would very much appreciate if you would send us all the available information concerning the following topics :

1. The existing legislation on foreign investment.
2. The incentives that could attract foreign investments (e.g. current tax system e.t.c.).

We would like to thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.

Sincerely yours,
Kl. Stavrakakis Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes

THE SCOPE OF COMMUNITY LAW

If the goals of the original EEC Treaty were, as its name implied, primarily economic, they were so in the widest sense. The treaty was from the beginning much more than a free trade agreement. The Community's activities, outlined in Article 3 EEC, were to include the elimination of all internal barriers to the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital (the common or single 'internal market', see now Article 7a EC); the approximation of the laws of member states to the extent required for the proper functioning of the common market (Article 100 EEC); the harmonisation of indirect taxation (Articles 95-99); the establishment of common policies in the spheres of agriculture and transport and the creation of a Community competition policy. States were to co-ordinate their economic policies 'in order that disequilibria in their balances of payments might be remedied'. In the field of external affairs the Community was to establish a common customs tariff and a common commercial policy towards countries outside the EEC ('third countries') and to 'associate with overseas countries in order to increase trade and to promote jointly economic and social development'. The Community thus had extensive internal and external competence in economic matters.
But even at the outset the goals of the EEC were not purely economic. The preamble of the EEC Treaty expressed the resolve of member states 'to ensure the economic and social progress of their countries'; their essential objective being the 'constant improvement of the living and working conditions of their peoples'. Articles 117-128 provided for action in the field of social policy, requiring states to promote improved working conditions and improved living standards for workers. Article 119 provided a principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women, the purpose of which, according to the European Court, was both economic, to remove the competitive advantage of a (normally) cheaper workforce in states which failed to provide for equal pay.
If the sphere of Community competence was large even at the Community's inception, it has been greatly extended since then, either by action by the
EC institutions under Article 235, which allows the institutions to 'take the appropriate measures' if action by the Community 'should prove necessary to attain ... one of the objectives of the Community and this
Treaty has not provided the necessary powers', or by amendments to the EEC
Treaty provided by subsequent treaties, the Single European Act (1986) and the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty (1992)).
________________________
EC European Community
EEC European Economic Community

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes
Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.

Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes
In relation to the EU's tender regulations, the Court has established that when a parent company submits a tender for a public contract and must document expertise and experience in the relevant area (eg building and construction work), the parent company may also include the expertise possessed by one or more of its subsidiaries rather than by the parent company itself, provided that it is proved that the parent company
'actually has available the resources of those companies which are necessary for carrying out the works'.
With regard to the EU's non-competition rules, when a competitor has complained of competition distorting group agreements and practices, the
Court has deemed several companies acting as one entity to be one entity under the non-competition rules. The Court ruled that when subsidiaries are completely unified with the parent company in their polices, they and the parent company constitute a single economic unit in the sense of Art 85 of the Treaty. It follows they the group's policy (eg co-ordinated price policy) does not constitute distorting agreements or practices among undertakings for the simple reason that these are not undertakings, but a single undertaking irrespective of the formal division into a number of companies.
With regard to the EU's Television Broadcasting Directive, the Court has ruled that a television group is domiciled, and thus governed, by the television legislation in the state where the centre of its activities is located [programming etc). This means that the Court identifies all group companies and considers them as a single entity, irrespective of whether or not the broadcasting activities are formally divided among a number of companies across a number of states. In practical terms this means that each subsidiary is seen as a branch, and this makes the Court's decision worthy of note. See also the Court's Decision of 10 September 1996. These judgments (and there arc more) are all identifications to the advantage of the group. But a small number of cases where the identification disadvantaged the group may also be mentioned. The Court has affirmed that legal action may be brought against a parent company in another state where its subsidiary was domiciled, because the Court deemed it to be the parent company which in real terms was conducting its business in another state, using its subsidiary merely as an extension of itself.
___________________
EU European Union

European Business Law Review. September/October, 1998

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes
Der President

10965 BERLIN des Bundeskartellamtes

18 December 1998

Minister
Gennadiy Khodirev

Dear Minister,

I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on
Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel
Intercontinental Berlin, the venue of our last conference.

The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:
Mega-mergers –

I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our
9th International Conference on Competition. As in previous conferences, a simultaneous translation will be in German, English and French.

Yours sincerely,
Wolf


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes
Despite Article 5, states, sometimes deliberately, sometimes inadvertently, not infrequently failed to fulfil their Community obligations. Whilst procedures were provided under the Treaty for action by the Commission or by member states before the Court of Justice against states which had 'failed to fulfil their obligations' under Community law
(Articles 169 and 170, see Chapter 11), these provisions proved insufficient on their own to secure the effective enforcement of EC law, for a number of reasons.
First, the Commission (or member state) may simply be unaware of breaches of Community law by member states. In a Community of twelve it is not possible for the Commission, with limited resources, effectively to monitor the laws and practices of all member states.
Secondly, although any person may complain to the Commission of suspected infringements of EC law by member states and request the Commission to act under Article 169, and the majority of Article 169 proceedings have been found to result from such complaints, an individual has no power to compel the Commission to act under Article 169. The Commission has a complete discretion in this matter. The enforcement of EC law against member states by Community institutions is a sensitive matter. The Commission may choose not to proceed against insignificant failures. Where the breach is clear, and significant, the Commission can, and often does, achieve compliance-by- negotiation at the preliminary stages of the Article 169 procedure; it will not then be necessary to proceed to the final stage before the Court. Yet
Individuals may have suffered damage as a result of member states' prior actions in breach of EC law. They may have paid levies which were wrongfully imposed; or deprived of rights, for example under Directives, which they would have enjoyed had states fulfilled their Community obligations.
Thirdly, even where the Commission proceeds to action before the Court under Article 169 and obtains a judgment under Article 171 that the state has 'failed to fulfil its Community obligations' the Court has no power to impose sanctions to guarantee compliance. The state is simply required to
'take the necessary measures' to comply with the Court's judgment. If the
State fails to take the necessary measures the Commission must resort to fresh Article 169 proceedings for the state's failure to comply with the
Court's judgment under Article 171.
_________________________
EC European Community

Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes
H.E.
Mr. Gennady Bogachev
Deputy Director

Dear Mr. Bogachev,

I want to thank you for your participation in the Political and Economic
Leaders Summit of 7-8 February, in Thessaloniki, in the frame of ASIA FORUM
2000.

You will soon receive a short report with the conclusions. We proceed also to the publication of the Proceedings.

We have started the preparations for the Business Meeting and Exhibition of
23-28 May. We hope to have your support in motivating enterprises and businessmen to participate in the event.

We shall ask your active involvement in the May event very soon.

Thanking you once again, I remain

Sincerely yours


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes
A Protocol on Social Policy attached to the treaty, from which Britain opted out, declared as its objectives the promotion of employment, improved living and working conditions, proper social protection, dialogue between management and labour, the development of human resources with a view to lasting high employment and the combating of exclusion (Article 1).
The Community was required to develop trans-European networks (Article
129b EC) and to contribute to the development of education and vocational training and the flowering of European culture (Articles 126, 127, 128 EC), albeit in these latter cases in a supporting role, 'supplementing' and
'encouraging' the actions of member states, pursuant to the principle of subsidiarity.
As well as amending the EC Treaty the treaty on European Union provided for co-operation with a view to the framing of common policies in the fields of foreign and security policy, and eventually defence, and in justice and home affairs. These matters remain strictly intergovernmental, in the nature of a 'normal' international agreement and outside the institutional framework of the EC treaty; as such they will not be subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court, nor will they be the concern of the British courts. When member states are acting under these provisions they are acting as members of the European Union. The term 'European
Community' will continue to apply to matters pertaining specifically to the
EC treaty.
It is clear from the above brief outline that the scope of the law stemming from the EC treaty, and of Community competence, is now extremely wide. Within this area of competence the Community institutions have power, subject only to the limitations provided by the treaty, to pass laws, binding on states and individuals. As well as provisions of the EC Treaty which may be enforced by national courts, there now exists a substantial body of EC secondary legislation in all the areas of activity outlined above, fleshing out the basic principles of the treaty. Much of this law is directly enforceable within national legal systems. Where it is not it may be necessary for national courts to take it into account in interpreting national law. The Index of Community Activities listed in the Directory of
Community Legislation in force. Official Journal (OJ) of the European
Communities, indicates the range of Community law. All EC secondary legislation is published in the Official Journal (L) series; it is listed, analytically (Volume I) and chronologically (Volume II), with the appropriate OJ reference, in the Directory itself.
________________________
EC European Community

Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000


VIA FEDEX


Mr. Alexander Ivanov
President
MICEX

Moscow
RUSSIA

Dear Mr. Zakharov:

Please find enclosed the proposed Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading
Commission ("CFTC").

We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to
Chairman Parkov.

If the Russian finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.

We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.

Sincerely yours,

Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes

The Task of the International Judge

Lauterpacht argues that in avoiding a declaration of non liqiiet by filling material gaps in the law the judge is necessarily creative:
The rejection of the admissibility of non liqiiet implies the necessity for creative activity on (the part of international judges. Legal philosophy in the domain of municipal jurisprudence has shown the possibilities and, indeed, the inevitability of the law-creating function, within defined limits, of the judge within the State.
The development of international law by the International Court, its secondary function, is, for Lauterpacht, clearly and expressly connected with the doctrine of gradual concretization. In exercising this function, the Court is not bound to base its decision simply on the arguments and considerations raised in the parties' pleadings as in interpreting and applying concrete legal rules the Court does not act as an automatic slot- machine, totally divorced from the social and political realities of the international community. It exercises in each case a creative activity, having as its background the entirety of international law and the necessities of the international community. The distinction between the making of law by judges and by the legislature is upon analysis one of degree ... judicial activity is nothing else than legislation in concreto
...
But this is legislation within limits. The creativity of international judges must stop short of interference with established rights. If these are a cause of friction, then they might be a fit object for legislative change, but legisiation cannot be let in by a backdoor by transforming the nature of the judicial function'. Moreover, even where the judiciary is creative, its rulings are themselves relatively indeterminate: Judicial legislation is not - and ought not to be - like legislative codification by statute. It cannot attempt to lay down all the details of the application of the principle on which it is based. It lays down the broad principle and applies it to the case before it. Its elaboration must be left in. addition to any doctrinal elucidation of the law by writers, to ordinary legislative processes or to future judicial decisions disposing of the problems as they arise.
The clear conclusion to be drawn is that Lauterpacht views the international judicial function as one which is law creative, rather than as merely the elucidation of the specific legal relationships which obtain between the parties.

Iain J. M. Scobbie. The Theorist as Judge. European Journal of
International Law. Vol. 8 No 2, S997.

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes athens travel service

2-4 Alopekis sir., 10675 Alhens

Tel: 00301-33 3 5254*Fax:00301-333 5256

Date: 07/08/00
To: Mr A.Egorov
From: C.Vakali
Ref: Eommex group 20/8-03/9/00

With reference to the above group, we would like to inform you with the following.
SCHEDULE
OA 352 20/8 Moscow-Athens 1450-1725
OA 351 03/9 Athens-Moscow 0930-1355
You are kindly requested not to issue tickets for those not travelling. All issued unused tickets must be delivered to our representative at the airport otherwise you will be charged. Upon your arrival at the Athens airport you will be met bv our representative, holding a sign:

EOMMEX

ATHENS TRAVEL SERVICE

We would like to know which person will be in charge as head of the group during their stay in Greece.
The group will stay at the Training Center of the National Bank.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)

БИЛЕТ №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.
Your time is 45 minutes
The EFTA Court. The EEA Agreement also required the EFTA states to create an EFTA Court, which was created with effect from I January 1994. It consists of five judges appointed for a six-year renewable term. It sits only in plenary session, although it could request the EFTA states to permit it to establish chambers. There are no Advocates-General. The sole working language is English except where the Court directs otherwise and where national courts refer questions for interpretative opinions3. Its seat is in Geneva.
The jurisdiction of the EFTA Court. The forms of process before the EFTA
I Court fall into five categories:
(a) Infringement proceedings raised by the. EFTA Surveillance Authority against an EFTA state, analogous to article 169 of the EC Treaty.
(b) Settlement of disputes between EFTA states relating to the EEA, analogous to article 170 of the EC Treaty.
(c) Actions to annul a decision of the EFTA Surveillance Authority, analogous to articles 173 and 174(1) of the EC Treaty. The first such action was raised in April 1994.
(d) Actions against the EFTA Surveillance Authority for failure to act, analogous to article 175 of the EC Treaty.
(e) Advisory opinions to national courts of EFTA states. But it is important to note that there are significant differences between this procedure and article 177 of the EC Treaty. First, because the EEA Treaty does not require the transfer of legislative authority to any EEA institution, advisory opinions of the EFTA Court are, unlike preliminary rulings from the Court of Justice, non-binding. Second, an advisory opinion may be sought only upon the interpretation of the EEA Treaty, and not upon the interpretation or validity of acts of the institutions. Further, there is no obligation to seek an advisory opinion, even for courts of last instance, and national rules may restrict access to the procedure to courts of last instance". The first request for an advisory opinion, from a
Finnish customs appeal committee, was lodged in April 1994 and decided in
December 1994.
__________________________________
EC European Community
EEC European Economic Community
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EEA European Economic Area

David A.0. Edward & Robert C. Lane. European Community Law. An
Introduction. Second Edition. Butterwiths Law Society of Scotland,
Edinburgh, 1995

Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes
Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.

Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.


Sincerely,

phone (202)
565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


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